Abstract: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a neoplasm of mature IgM-expressing B-lymphocytes that is characterized by the occurrence of a monoclonal IgM (mIgM) paraprotein in blood serum and the infiltration of hematopoietic bone marrow with malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells. WM remains incurable despite the development of new therapeutic options. Owing in large measure to having a low incidence, indolent clinical course and good long-term control with proper clinical management, WM has not been investigated as extensively as other B-lineage neoplasms. Major knowledge gaps in our understanding of the natural history of WM include the cell of origin. With that shortcoming in mind, here we discuss the significance of a specific gain-of-function mutation in the adapter protein, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), that occurs with near-complete penetrance in WM and suggests that tumor development is under strong selective pressure for elevated MYD88 signaling. This provides an intriguing link to IgM memory B-cells, which comprise two types of B-lymphocytes ( natural effector IgM+IgD+ cells and IgM-only IgM+IgD- cells ) that depend, in part, on MYD88 signaling and constitute intriguing candidates for WM’s cell of origin. We review the features and developmental history of IgM memory in greater depth and propose that WM may be derived from primitive innate-like B-cells ( marginal zone B-cells and B1 B-cells ) that feed the IgM memory compartment. We conclude with a model of MYD88-dependent tumor development in the mature B-cell lineage that considers two different ( convergent or divergent) oncogenesis pathways with respect to the cells of origin.
Abstract: Platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) can be defined as the less increment of platelet count than expected after platelets transfusion, which is a challenging and expensive problem often observed in platelet-transfusion-dependent patients. Although PTR occurs most frequently due to non-immune causes, a significant minority is still caused by immune factors. The most important factor in immune dependent PTR is alloimmunization against Class I human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) or human platelet antigens (HPAs). The compatible platelets can be provided to immune-mediated patients using platelet crossmatching, HLA matching, and antibody specificity testing. These measures-aimed to eliminate donor-specific HLA antibodies will lead to the improved clinical management of PTR patients, caused by severe alloimmunization.
Abstract: This study aims to investigate changes in viral load, T lymphocyte subsets and other main biochemical indexes of HIV/AIDS in the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In this study, 152 pregnant women with HIV/AIDS enrolled into our hospital from January 2013 to June 2015 were chosen as objects. Changes in viral load, T lymphocyte subsets and other main biochemical indexes of HIV/AIDS were tested and compared before and after 3 months of PMTCT and in neonatals one week after birth. The CD4/CD8 examination result, and difference in CD4 before and after prevention (in the newborns after a week) was statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the rest showed no statistical significance. For the dynamic analysis of main biochemical test results: K+, Na+, Cl-, BG, OS, BUN, BUN/Cr, UA,TDIL, DBIL, TP, ALB, CK, LDH, HDL, LDL and other indexes before and after prevention attained statistical significances (P < 0.05 or above). The same sample in the three groups was detected by repeated analysis of variance, K+, Na+, Cl-, BG, OS, BUN/Cr, UA, DBI L, ALB, CK, LDH, HDL, LDL and other indexes also showing P at less than 0.05 or above, among which K+, Cl-, CK, LDL showed homogeneity of variance, while Na+, BG, OS, BUN/Cr, UA, DBIL, ALB, LDH, HDL showed unequal homogeneity of variance. The study suggests that the dynamic analysis of viral load, T lymphocyte subsets and main biochemical indexes before and after PMTCT in HIV/AIDS are important means to evaluate the dose and treatment of antiretroviral drugs. Monitoring of above indexes is helpful to judge and analyze the condition of the maternal body at various stages, so antiviral drug treatment can be adjusted.
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease particularly prevalent in Mexico. Althoughits etiology is unknown, genetic factors strongly influence its presenceas well as triggering factors, such as viral infections, including Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Here,the study presents the appearance of de novoSLE (patients who did not present SLE before de virus infection, corroborated by serological analysis and negative for antinuclear antibodies) cases in Mexicans who live near the southern border of Mexico, who presented clinical symptoms of arthritic, hematological, mucocutaneous and renal SLE, after Zika and/ or Chikungunya virus infection. Low resolution class Ⅱ HLA typing was performed, which found a significantly increased frequency of HLA DRB1*02 (15 and 16)when compared to a group of 99 healthy individuals (P =0.001, OR=4.5, IC95% 1.8~11.0). All the patients were diagnosed with SLE 1 to 3 years after being confirmed with the Zika, and/or Chikungunya infection. At the point of acute viral infection, none of the patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of autoimmunity or were negative for antinuclear antibodies. In genetically susceptible individuals, Zika and Chikungunya viral infection can trigger SLE.
Abstract: This report analyzed factors relating to ELISA-HBsAg and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in blood donors. To provide a reference for an accurate screening model for HBV infection in donated blood, we collected rel-evant information from 124 blood donors testing ELISA-HBsAg negative and HBV DNA positive in 2017, including ELISA-HBsAg Max s/co, gender, age, residence, education level, blood donation record and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) value. Meanwhile, 99 blood donors with the results ELISA-HBsAg negative and HBV DNA negative were randomly selected as control. Univariate logistic analysis was conducted for possible correlation factors, then multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for statistically significant observation indicators. The results showed that the Ct value of HBV DNA mixed test in the observation group donor was higher than that of HBV DNA single test (P<0.05). If one of the two ELISA-HBsAg s/co values was within the range of 0.259 to 0.304, the chance of HBV DNA positive was increased. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that ELISA-HBsAg Max s/co, gender, age, blood donation history and ALT value were all risk factors in the observation group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ELISA-HBsAg Max s/co, (OR=5352.448, P<0.05), age (OR= 4.527, P<0.05) and blood donation history (OR=0.441) were risk factors. The study concluded that ELISA-HBsAg Max s/co, age and number of blood donations are risk factors for ELISA-HBsAg negative and HBV DNA positive blood donors, women or donors under 26 years of age had the lowest risk.
Abstract: Studies have shown that exosomes influence tumour metastasis, diagnosis, and treatment. It has been found that exosomal miRNAs are closely linked to the metastatic microenvironment. However, the regulatory role of exosomes from prostate cancer (PCa) cells in bone metastasis remains poorly understood. Here, exosomes were isolated and purified by ultracentrifugation, total RNA from cells and total miRNA from exosomes were isolated, and the level of miR-375 was analyzed by RT-PCR. Exosome libraries from LNCaP cells and RWPE-1 cells were sequenced and filtered with an Illumina HiSeqTM 2500 system. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, the extent of extracellular matrix mineralization, and the expression of osteoblast activity-related marker genes were measured to evaluate osteoblast activity. Morphological observation, particle size analysis, and molecular phenotyping confirmed that the isolated extracts contained exosomes. Differential expression analysis confirmed the high expression of miR-375 in LNCaP cell-derived exosomes. This study suggest that exosomes could enter osteoblasts and increase their miR-375 level. In addition, exosomal miR-375 could significantly promote the activity of osteoblasts.This study lays the foundation for further investigations on the function of exosomal miR-375 in the activation and differentiation of osteoblasts and the mechanism of bone metastasis in PCa.
Abstract: Many cancer patients are known to present in a hypercoagulable state, meaning an increased risk of thrombosis. To investigate hypercoagulable state in breast cancer (BC) patients, their coagulation status was compared with a benign disease group (control). The BC patients were divided into earlier stage (stage I and stage Ⅱ ) and later stage (stage Ⅲ and stage Ⅳ ). Thrombelastography (TEG) and other traditional coagulation tests were performed. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT) was significantly shortened and the levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen (Fib) and platelets (PLT) were significantly increased in the traditional BC group test (P< 0.05). According to TEG detection, the average level of blood clot formation time (K) was significantly lower, while the Angle, MA and CI were significantly higher in the BC group than those in benign disease group (P< 0.05). There were 5 cases of lower extremity venous thrombosis in the breast cancer patients, coinciding with hypercoagulable state. The results showed that the BC patients had an increased hypercoagulable state, with hypercoagulability becoming more obvious in advanced stages. This study suggests that BC patients have an increased tendency for clot formation, and TEG monitoring could be a useful tool to predict the risk of thrombosis for clinical prevention and treatment.
Abstract: The use of apheresis technique to collect platelets has rapidly increased in recent years. With an increased demand for plateletpheresis, higher donation frequencies are now observed. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in complete blood count values after frequent multiple plateletpheresis. A total of seventy-four blood donors were selected, from which complete blood count values in the first and the last screening were taken. There were fifty-four high frequency donors(13.0±2.6 plateletpheresis/year) and twenty low frequency donors(6.6±0.5 plateletpheresis/year). The results showed that complete blood count values at the first and last screening after plateletpheresis of both groups were within the normal range, and changes in their WBC, RBC and PLT values were not statistically significant(P>0.05, P>0.05, and P>0.05, respectively). The study suggests that frequent multiple plateletpheresis has no effects on complete blood count, and no adverse effects on blood donors.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of piperacillin-specific drug antibody in patients with and without piperacillin. Piperacillin antibody was detected by piperacillin-induced hemolysis test kit. Three hundred samples were collected from patients who had been treated with piperacillin within 3 months; and 222 samples were from patients who were treated with other antibiotics; and a normal group of 120 samples was from healthy blood donors. The results showed that the positive rates in the piperacillin group, the other antibiotic group and the control group were 11.33%, 4.95% and 1.67%, respectively, which was statistically significant. The antibody titer was from 2 to 64. The antibody titer of the piperacillin group was significantly higher than that of the other two groups. The study suggests that piperacillin is able to induce piperacillin-specific drug antibody and drug antibody detection is useful for maintaining the safety of medication.
Abstract: The serological examination, blood transfusion strategies and the molecular analysis to blood group chimera were conducted to demonstrate existent of chimera in blood group. The blood grouping of ABO or/and RhD, newborn red blood cells separated by capillary centrifugation. Aabsorption tests and DTT treated agglutination erythrocyte tests were implemented in four patients. Further molecular biological research was conducted on one patient's sample. The results showed that for patient 1: ABO blood group was AB/B chimera, Rh blood cells contained the RhCE chimera gene; Patient 2: Rh blood cells contained the RhD chimera gene; Patient 3: ABO blood group was AB/B chimera, Rh blood cells contained the RhD chimera gene; Patient 4: ABO blood group was O/B chimera, Rh blood cells contained the RhCE chimera gene. The study suggests that the individuals categorized as chimeras are likely to be more common than existing literature reports. According to the serological tests, in the absence of a history of recent blood transfusion or disease to cause reduced antigen, the phenomena of hybrid aggregation of the ABO and Rh blood system were the main feature. In terms of transfusion strategy, the selection of ABO and Rh blood groups should be depended on the group of cells with more antigens.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy of a new enhanced medium in indirect antiglobulin test by optimized gel method. Anti-IgG+ C3d and anti-IgG antiglobulin gel cards, and samples from three blood group systems: Rh, Kidd and MNSs were used. The new enhanced medium was incubated at 37°C for 5 minutes, low ionic strength solution (LISS) for 15 minutes, saline solution for 30 minutes, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of blood group antibodies were then compared. The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity of the new enhanced medium incubated for 5 minutes were consistent with those of LISS and saline solution for 15 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. The results suggest that the new enhanced medium be able to accelerate the binding of erythrocyte antibodies with antigens, reduce incubation time and optimize the detection process of indirect antiglobulin test by gel method.