The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is the cellular environment in which tumors exist. This includes: surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules, immune checkpoint proteins and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The TIME plays a critical role in cancer progression and regulation. Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. The molecules and cells in the TIME influence disease outcome by altering the balance of suppressive versus cytotoxic responses in the vicinity of the tumor. Having a better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment will pave the way for identifying new targets for immunotherapies that promote cancer elimination.