The association between HLA alleles (A, B, DRB1), haplotypes and AIDS progression in HIV-1 infected patients was investigated by analyzing and comparing the differences gene frequencies of HLA alleles (A, B, DRB1) and haplotypes in HIV-1 infected and AIDS individuals in Hubei province of China. Four hundred and twenty- four HIV-1 seropositive individuals were divided into two groups: HIV-1 infected group and AIDS patient group, according to diagnostic criteria. HLA-A, B, and DRB1 allele typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSOP) and polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) techniques. Our study revealed that B*57:01 seemed resistant to AIDS progression, and the presence of DRB1*04:05 was associated with a poor disease outcome in HIV-1 infection. These associations were independent of age, sex, and transmission route of the host. No association was observed between HLA-A, B, DRB1 homozygotes, HLA-Bw4, Bw6 serological types and AIDS progression. We concluded that HLA gene polymorphism has a significant role in HIV-1 infection/AIDS progression. This observational study may open up avenues for precision medicine in the personalized prevention and treatment of AIDS.