The putative prognostic significance of perioperative blood transfusions on gastric cancers is controversial and the published results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic influence of transfusion on Chinese gastric cancer surgery. Six hundreds and seventy-six patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer from 2000 to 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Uni- and multivariate analyses of the incidence and amount of transfusion, and a comparison of the clinicopathological features were performed. Subgroup analyses of prognosis according to stage, tumor size, and pretreatment anemia were carried out. Blood transfusion was significantly associated with older age (>60 year), larger tumor (>6 cm), upper and middle location, surgical margin status, and pretreatment anemia. In addition, tumors in the transfused group were more advanced in depth of invasion, nodal stage, and TNM stage. No significant relationship was found between the amount of transfused blood and prognosis. Subgroup analyses of prognosis according to stage showed significant differences in stages II and III, between the transfused and nontransfused groups. Significant difference between the transfused and nontransfused groups could be observed in two subgroups of tumor size. Patients with or without anemia in the nontransfused group both had a longer survival time than those in the transfused group. On multivariate analysis, transfusion was shown to be an independent risk factor for poor prognosis. This study suggests that perioperative blood transfusion is associated with a significantly worse prognosis following gastric cancer surgery. The parameters such as advanced stage, tumor size, and anemia do not affect its prognostic value.