Abstract: In this review, the capability of electrical impedance spectroscopy analysis of blood cells, especially for red blood cells is presented, highlighting its large area of related biomedical relevance. The method is briefly introduced and basic theoretical aspects are discussed by considering both phenomenological (e.g. equivalent circuit) and microscopic approaches. The latter include a comparative analysis of the relevance of considering real shape (consistent with microscopic observations) versus spheroidal approximations (prolate and oblate spheroids) with the same surface and volume concentration. We show that while ellipsoidal approximation is fairly good for randomly oriented cells, it is quite poor whenever oriented cells are measured. The voluminous literature on the electrical analysis of blood cells is reviewed to stress the most promising biomedical applications of the method either per se or in combination with complementary e.g. (micro) fluidic approaches.
Abstract: Genetic myeloma risk research relied on genome-wide association studies to identify 24 common but low-impact germline predisposition alleles that account for an estimated one eighth of the heritable myeloma risk in Caucasians. Next-generation sequencing, particularly whole-exome sequencing, uncovered a handful of rare but high-impact myeloma risk loci that convey intriguing clues about etiology. The recent discovery of NCOA1 as a myeloma susceptibility gene in Han Chinese has set the stage for the more complete elucidation of the genetic myeloma risk across ethnic barriers. Validating individual myeloma risk loci at the functional level and integrating predisposition genes in genetic networks and biological pathways are important research tasks going forward. Candidate pathways that are currently emerging include plasma cell development, autophagy, telomere maintenance, and cell cycle regulation. An outstanding knowledge gap in the area of gene-environment interaction concerns the possibility that tumor-promoting effects of myeloma susceptibility alleles depend on specific environmental or occupational exposures. An implicit promise of myeloma risk research is the detection of new molecular targets for myeloma treatments and preventions. A related outcome is new biomarkers for patient stratification, prognostication, and development of individualized treatment plans.
Abstract: Carbonic anhydrases were first identified in red blood cells and have been thus traditionally addressed in a hematological context. However, recently there has been a shift of research interest to therapeutic areas, notably in solid cancers, relegating the impact of carbonic anhydrase function and pathological dysfunction in blood related physiology to secondary importance. This review addresses this paradigm and emphasizes the potential impact of recent studies on blood related carbonic anhydrase isotype expression and modulation in diverse areas such as physiology and pathology, biosensing, their use as biomarkers, and in the development of synthetic blood. A special emphasis is placed on reviewing new dynamic and quantitative studies that allow for the efficient tracking and quantitation of various carbonic anhydrase isozymes within the blood and more generally within the human body, that give new perspectives on the biochemical and physiological role of blood associated carbonic anhydrase in health and pathology.
Abstract: The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is the most important blood group system in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). In clinical transfusions, the D antigen in the Rh blood group system comes third, behind antigens A and B which from ABO blood group system. Over the past decade, molecular technologies have been used to investigate the RHD allele in different ethnic groups. This review first introduces the basic structure of RhD protein and coding genes, then focuses on D-negative, weak D, partial D, DEL, RhDnull variants reported in the Chinese population. To date, more than 460 RHD variants have been reported around the world, but less than 70 RHD variants have been reported in the Chinese population. Further research is needed to identify more RHD polymorphism and establish criteria for blood detection and transfusion guidelines for RHD variants. Only in this way can we better guarantee the safety of blood transfusion and prevent the occurrence of HDFN. With the accumulation of research and clinical data, we should be clearer which RHD variants are to be regarded as RhD negative and which need to be regarded as RhD positive.
Abstract: Lutheran blood group glycoprotein (Lu-gp) is a specific α5 laminin receptor that is linked by binding to its receptor in the basement membrane matrix. Although the biological function of Lu-gp is unknown, its special affinity with laminin in the chain suggests that it plays an important role in human development and physiological processes. As the interaction between Lu-gp and laminin is further investigated, their expression may be found to play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Laminin receptors help cells adhere, receive and conduct extracellular information into cells, mainly through MAPK pathways, including ERKs, p38MAPK, etc., affecting the degradation of the extracellular matrix and enhancing tumor cell infiltration and metastasis. Present researches in cancers mainly focus on aspects relating to laminin, but largely do not pay attention to the Lutheran blood group antigen, basal cell adhesion molecule. This paper focuses on the abnormal expression of the laminin receptor, that is, the Lutheran blood group antigen, in cancers, which is of great significance to the mechanism of cancer invasion and metastasis, and for finding effective treatment methods for cancers.
Abstract: Cell cycle-related E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) is a member of the E2F transcription factor family. E2F2 is implicated in tumorigenesis as it functions as a nuclear transcription factor responsible for regulating cell cycle progression to maintain genomic integrity. In recent decades, substantial experimental evidence has associated the function of E2F2 with tumor promotion. However, this transcription factor has also been revealed to be capable of exerting tumor suppressive activities in certain tumor models. In this review, we discuss recent developments in research that focus on E2F2 with respect to tumorigenesis. We will particularly address the dynamic regulatory roles of microRNA (miRNA) on the expression of E2F2 as various miRNA species have been confirmed to have complementary binding sites in the 3' untranslated region of E2F2.
Abstract: MiR-141 has gradually demonstrated its value in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, the diagnostic parameters applied in previous studies were different. This systematic review was conducted to explore the diagnostic value of miR-141 in prostate cancer. A comprehensive search of related literature in PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and Embase databases was performed. Seven studies were included which assessed the diagnostic value of miR-141 in patients with prostate cancer up to October 31, 2019. Meta-disc version 1.4 and STATA software version 12.0 were used to analyze the data. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.70 (95% CI 0.64~0.75) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.64~0.80), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 2.88 (95% CI 1.40~5.93), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.38 (95% CI 0.20~0.71). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of miR-141 for prostate cancer was observed to be 9.94 (95% CI: 2.55~38.80). The summary area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.79~0.86). The results of meta-regression suggested that heterogeneity was mainly derived from patient age. The Fagan nomogram results showed a significant increase when correlating miR-141 with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that miR-141 has a high diagnostic value for prostate cancer. In future, large-scale prospective studies will be done to verify and evaluate this result.
Abstract: Solute carrier family 4 member 11 (SLC4A11) is a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, which have been reported to encode sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters. In this study, SLC4A11 mRNA and protein expression in stomach tissue of 441 patients and 5 cell lines were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. SLC4A11 expression was predictively analyzed using Oncomine online resources. The results revealed that SLC4A11 mRNA and protein levels were both significantly higher in gastric cancer than those in normal gastric tissues (both P < 0.001). Statistical analysis revealed that SLC4A11 high expression was associated with Her-2 expression (P=0.018), N stage (P=0.031), TNM stage (P=0.015), and preoperative CEA levels (P=0.017). In univariate and multivariate analyses, SLC4A11 overexpression and advanced N stage showed a great prognostic value for 5-year survival. Our results suggest that SLC4A11 plays an important role in gastric carcinoma development and progression and that SLC4A11 could be a significant prognostic marker for gastric cancer patients.
Abstract: The paper aims to study the serological and genetic characteristics of a case of para-Bombay Amh. The serological method was applied to identify the proband's ABO phenotype and PCR-SSP assay was used to analyze the genotype of the para-Bombay blood. DNA sequencing of the PCR products of the first exon of FUT1 gene was used to analyze the genotype and nucleic acid sequence mutation. The serological results showed that the ABO phenotype of the proband was O-type. However, while after absorption-elution test, the ABO phenotype showed weak A-type. The serological test also showed that the irregular antibody anti-H was positive. PCR-SSP assay showed that the proband was h4 para-Bombay type and sequence analysis showed a point mutation c.35C > T of FUT1 gene. The study suggests that genetic analysis is necessary for blood typing in those who have elusive immunological typing results.