Abstract: Despite encouraging progress in recent years, our knowledge of the natural history of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), a low-grade LPL (lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma) of mature IgM+ B-lymphocytes, remains superficial. This is particularly true of the etiology of WM (tumor causation and initiation) and the sequence of events that underlie the malignant transformation of precursor B cells (tumor progression). Here we briefly review the epidemiology of and genetic predisposition to WM and consider the role of autoimmunity and chronic inflammation in related tumor development. We discuss the immunophenotypic features of WM, including the immunological specificity of WM-associated IgM paraproteins. The proclivity of patients with WM to develop the rare immunoglobulin autoantibody syndromes mixed IgM-IgG cryoglobulinemia, chronic cold agglutinin disease, and IgM neuropathy will also be discussed. We conclude with a call for additional research to elucidate outstanding questions, such as the role of T cell-dependent vs. –independent immune responses in the pathophysiology of WM.
Abstract: Regeneration effects with cellular factors are considered essential in regenerative treatments. Cellular factors derived from multiple cells can be applied in such therapies. Various clinical trial phases are based on studies of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells (MSPCs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells which have multi-directional differentiation potential. MSPCs may exhibit full stem cell functions and can be obtained from different tissues, such as adipose tissue, umbilical cord and bone marrow etc. MSPCs reside in the perivascular niche that is proximal to blood vessels, which allow MSPCs capable of exerting their potential of homing and migration across the endothelium barrier toward lesion sites for tissue repairing or regeneration. MSPCs can be stimulated to release various factors, including surface molecules, growth factors and inhibitory factors. MSPCs’ homing potential depends on the expressing of certain surface molecules. The growth and inhibitory factors contribute to tissue regeneration and immunomodulation effects. This review provides details of how cellular factors derived from MSPCs can be used for homing and repair mechanisms, and ultimately be applied to clinical settings.
Abstract: Hydrogen (H2) is a colorless, odorless gas that can act as a reducing agent under certain circumstances. Previously considered physiologically an inert and nonfunctional molecule in mammalian cells, H2 largely went ignored until Nature Medicine revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of hydrogen gas in a focal stroke model. Reactive oxygen species (ROS）is generated inside the body throughout our daily lives as a by-product of the energy metabolism by oxidative phosphorylation, which can cause biofilm system damage and intracellular oxidative phosphorylation disorders. H2 reacts with highly reactive oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (·OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) inside cells to improve ischemia reperfusion injury. In addition, hydrogen is a potent antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory agent and can be used for potential medical applications in cells, tissues and organs. As a new antioxidant, hydrogen has the advantages of non-toxicity, easy diffusion and selective neutralization. This review makes a case for supporting hydrogen as a new antioxidant medicine for clinical applications. We also hope to provide a reference for the further study of hydrogen to preserve blood cells in transfusion medicine.
Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system plays a central role in the immune response to pathogens, as well as in organ and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Finding a five-locus (i.e., HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1) matched unrelated donor for a patient awaiting HSCT is a major clinical challenge, due to the lack of HLA-identical sibling donors and the high polymorphism of HLA. To date, most studies providing HLA allele frequencies (AF) and haplotype frequencies (HF) in Chinese populations have focused on donors instead of the recipients and have provided data for three loci (HLA-A, -B, and -DR); however, data from five-locus HLA typing in a large sample of patients, especially those with hematological diseases, remains unavailable. Therefore, this study was designed to determine HLA AF and two-, three-, four- and five-locus HF in a large cohort of Chinese Han patients with hematological diseases. The AF and the HF were determined using high-resolution HLA typing data from 2,878 patients. The total number of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles was determined to be 48, 92, 49, 52, and 24, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) analyses indicated significant deviations from HWE for HLA-A, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 AF, but not for HLA-B locus. The three most common alleles at each locus were A*11:01, A*24:02, A*02:01; B*46:01, B*40:01, B*13:02; C*01:02, C*07:02, C*06:02; DRB1*09:01, DRB1*15:01, DRB1*07:01; DQB1*03:01, DQB1*03:03, and DQB1*06:01. Our data may help to determine whether the current bone marrow registry contains sufficient diversity to meet the demand.
Abstract: The Xinjiang region with residents from more than 13 minorities represents an area of many diverse ethnicities. This ethnic diversity in relation to their blood groups and immune status may have a consequential impact on the clinical status of married couples. To evaluate the risks of haemolytic disease in new-born infants, we investigated the rate of blood-group incompatibility among 487 married couples from four ethnic minorities, namely the Han, Hui, Uyghur and Kazak populations. Han minority married couples showed significantly different ABO, Rh and K phenotype frequencies between marrial relationship, whereas there was no significant difference in ABO, Rh and K phenotypes between the Uyghur, Hui and Kazak .There was a significant difference between ABO blood types in Han married couples, in the Kazak Rh-C phenotype and in the Uyghur Rh-D phenotype. The Hui married couples only demonstrated ABO, Rh and K phenotypes. The Hui minority showed the highest incompatibility rate for Rh-C and Rh-E phenotypes between mothers and their new-born infants. The highest incompatibility rate for the ABO phenotype occurred in the Kazak group. These results particularly demonstrate the clinical issues relating to ABO and Rh incompatibility, in the Kazak and Hui minorities, respectively.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and clinical relevance of anti-HLA and/or MICA antibodies in renal allo-grafts transplant recipients with long-term renal survival (> 5 years). This retrospective study collected post-transplant serum samples from a total of 110 patients which were used to detect the incidence of anti-HLA and/or MICA antibodies as well as anti-HLA donor specific antibodies. Among these 110 patients, 72 patients had antibodies against HLA and/or MICA at the time of test, 61 had only anti-HLA antibodies, 31 had anti-MICA antibodies, and 38 were antibody negative. There was no difference in the number of patients developing antibodies against non-donor specific antibodies, donor specific antibodies, Class I donor specific antibodies, Class II donor specific antibodies or MICA antibodies between normal function group (serum creatinine level < 2.0 mg/dL) and dysfunction group (serum creatinine level > 2.0 mg/dL). For the serum creatinine level, estimated glomerular filtration rate and blood urea nitrogen level, patients with different antibodies were not statistically different to antibody-negative patients. Cox regression analysis showed that the type of transplantation and HLA mismatch number were significant negative risk factors for the development of anti-HLA (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that the anti-HLA antibody status has little impact on the renal graft function in the long-term survival allo-graft renal recipients.
Abstract: To explore the necessity of electronic crossmatching applied to irregular antibodies from blood donors, to ensure blood transfusion safety. Irregular antibody screening was performed on blood samples collected in the Dongguan Blood Center from Apr 17, 2014 to Dec 31, 2017. Primary screening was performed on the Sanquin automatic blood group analyzer by the microcolumn gel method (Sanquin). The positive samples were analyzed again using the salt medium method, polybrene method and micro-column gel method (Diana) for the second screening. If the second screening was positive, it was used to determine irregular antibody specificity (using panel cells) and any irregular antibody titer was detected. A total of 208,004 samples were detected, of which 316 were positive (316/208,004; 0.152%). Among them, 120 alloantibodies (120/135,139; 0.088%) were detected in male donors, which was much lower than in female donors (173/72,865; 0.237%) (P<0.01). A total of 16 kinds of known irregular antibodies and 40 cases of unknown antibody specificity were detected, with 119 cases of IgG type and 197 cases of IgM type, at the ratio of 1.65:1. In female donors, the frequencies of anti-D, anti-E, anti-M and anti-Lea were significantly higher than in male donors (P<0.01). In married couples, the frequencies of anti-D and anti-E were significantly higher than those unmarried (P<0.05). In minority nationalities, the frequency of anti-M was significantly higher than in the Han nationality (P<0.05). In non-Guangdong donors, the frequencies of anti-D and anti-Lea were significantly higher than in Guangdong donors. 87.02% of irregular antibody positive donors’ antibody titers were lower than “++”, which was deemed as no serious hazard for clinical transfusion. The study suggests that it is unnecessary to screen for irregular antibodies in blood donors. Male donors from Guangdong may not be required to undergo screening for irregular antibodies, and anti-D and anti-E only identification is also not required to be detected in female donors.
Abstract: The prognosis of advanced gastric cancer is poor, and the prognosis of late-stage gastric cancer with expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) is worse. Personalized therapy is based on the specific situation of each patient to determine the best treatment plan. We diagnosed a 36-year-old patient with a HER-2-producing adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia accompanied by liver metastasis. Sixteen cycles of chemotherapy were consecutively administered to the patient, starting with a three-drug combination, followed by a two-drug combination, and finally a single drug as a chemotherapy regimen. During these treatments, the molecular targeted drug trastuzumab was continuously administered. In the end, the patient experienced a complete response (CR). In clinical practice, advanced gastric cancer is not well controlled in certain patients, due to inadequate first-line chemotherapy and its side-effects. If a patient enjoys a strong performance status (PS), we emphasize the importance of molecular-targeted drugs combined with prolonged administration of chemotherapy.
Abstract: In this article, a convenient and efficient approach has been developed to isolate total RNA from cells. Conventional RNA isolation protocol is time-consuming, so to improve this, a modified method was introduced to eliminate ethanol residue by using a tip complex during the process of RNA extraction. It saves time by isolating RNA in this way and achieves high yields. Additionally, the quality of RNA is guaranteed and verified to be applicable for PCR, cDNA synthesis and reverse transcription PCR.
Abstract: In most molecular experiments, nucleic acids are subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to determine the size of the molecule. The addition of a nucleic acid dye allows the nucleic acid to be detected under the UV image system after running the gel, so the nucleic acid dye is an integral part of the electrophoresis experiment. But when considering the mutagenicity and toxicity of nucleic acid dyes, one must be careful to insure the proper disposal of experimental waste. In this article, a new usage of nucleic acid dye in agarose gel electrophoresis is described where the nucleic acid dyes were added to the loading buffer and nucleic acid marker buffer. The results show that this method has advantages as: a smaller amount of dye can be used, there is less time in contact with the dye, and its operation is easier and reduces toxicity damage. Also the bands showed a much clearer image, having a lower background value. The improved method shows better results with lower toxicity and is superior to the traditional method.