Few systematic investigations have assessed the correlations between red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles in the Chinese population. In this case-control study, we investigated whether specific HLA-DRB1 alleles were associated with RBC alloimmunization by calculating the odds ratios for the frequencies of HLA alleles associated with alloimmunization to different RBC antigens. Three hundred and eight patients harboring RBC alloantibodies were analyzed as the case group, and the frequencies of the HLA-DRB1and HLA-DQB1 alleles in control individuals were analyzed by collecting data from the China Marrow Donor Program (including more than 1.6 million healthy people). HLA alleles were genotyped by single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. The development of anti-C was associated with DRB1*07, DQB1*06, and DQB1*08; anti-C,e was associated with DRB1*07 and DQB1*06; and anti-E and anti-M were associated with DQB1. Other associations were identified between anti-E and DRB1*09 and between anti-Lea
and DRB1*01. Thus, our findings confirmed that HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 restriction played an important role in the generation of RBC alloantibodies in Chinese individuals.